# Linear regression#

In this tutorial, we build a linear regression model with Liesel and estimate it with Goose. Our goal is to illustrate the most important features of the software in a straightforward context.

## Model building with Liesel#

Liesel is based on the concept of probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) to represent (primarily Bayesian) statistical models, so let us start with a very brief look at what PGMs are and how they are implemented in Liesel.

### Probabilistic graphical models#

In a PGM, each variable is represented as a node. There are two basic types of nodes in Liesel: strong and weak nodes. A strong node is a node whose value is defined “outside” of the model, for example, if the node represents some observed data or a parameter (parameters are usually set by an inference algorithm such as an optimizer or sampler). In contrast, a weak node is a node whose value is defined “within” the model, that is, it is a deterministic function of some other nodes. An exp-transformation mapping a real-valued parameter to a positive number, for example, would be a weak node.

In addition, each node can have an optional probability distribution. The probability density or mass function of the distribution evaluated at the value of the node gives its log-probability. In a typical Bayesian regression model, the response node would have a normal distribution and the parameter nodes would have some prior distribution (for example, a normal-inverse-gamma prior). The following table shows the different node types and some examples of their use cases.

Strong node

Weak node

With distribution

Response, parameter, …

Copula, …

Without distribution

Covariate, hyperparameter, …

Inverse link function, parameter transformation, …

A PGM is essentially a collection of connected nodes. Two nodes can be connected through a directed edge, meaning that the first node is an input for the value or the distribution of the second node. Nodes without an edge between them are assumed to be conditionally independent, allowing us to factorize the model log-probability as

$\log p(\text{Model}) = \sum_{\text{Node \in Model}} \log p(\text{Node} \mid \text{Inputs}(\text{Node})).$

### Generating the data#

Before we can generate the data and build the model graph, we need to load Liesel and a number of other packages. We usually import the model building library liesel.model as lsl, and the MCMC library liesel.goose as gs.

import jax
import jax.numpy as jnp
import liesel.goose as gs
import liesel.model as lsl
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

# We use distributions and bijectors from tensorflow probability
import tensorflow_probability.substrates.jax.distributions as tfd
import tensorflow_probability.substrates.jax.bijectors as tfb

rng = np.random.default_rng(42)


Now we can simulate 500 observations from the linear regression model $$y_i \sim \mathcal{N}(\beta_0 + \beta_1 x_i, \;\sigma^2)$$ with the true parameters $$\boldsymbol{\beta} = (\beta_0, \beta_1)' = (1, 2)'$$ and $$\sigma = 1$$. The relationship between the response $$y_i$$ and the covariate $$x_i$$ is visualized in the following scatterplot.

# sample size and true parameters

n = 500
true_beta = np.array([1.0, 2.0])
true_sigma = 1.0

# data-generating process

x0 = rng.uniform(size=n)
X_mat = np.column_stack([np.ones(n), x0])
eps = rng.normal(scale=true_sigma, size=n)
y_vec = X_mat @ true_beta + eps

# plot the simulated data

plt.scatter(x0, y_vec)
plt.title("Simulated data from the linear regression model")
plt.xlabel("Covariate x")
plt.ylabel("Response y")
plt.show()


### Building the model graph#

The graph of a Bayesian linear regression model is a tree, where the hyperparameters of the prior are the leaves and the response is the root. To build this tree in Liesel, we need to start from the leaves and work our way down to the root.

We can use the following classes to build the tree:

• Obs(): We use this class to include observed data. Here, that means the response and the covariate values.

• Param(): We use this class to include the model parameters that we want to estimate. Here, that includes the regression coefficients $$\boldsymbol{\beta} = [\beta_0, \beta_1]^T$$ and the variance $$\sigma^2$$.

• Var: We use this class to include other variables that we need for our model. Here, that will be the response and the hyperparameters of our priors for $$\boldsymbol{\beta}$$ and $$\sigma^2$$.

#### The regression coefficients#

Let’s assume the weakly informative prior $$\beta_0, \beta_1 \sim \mathcal{N}(0, 100^2)$$ for the regression coefficients. To encode this assumption in Liesel, we need to create hyperparameter nodes for the mean and the standard deviation of the normal prior. Setting a name when creating a node is optional, but helps to identify it later.

beta_loc = lsl.Var(0.0, name="beta_loc")
beta_scale = lsl.Var(100.0, name="beta_scale") # scale = sqrt(100^2)

print(beta_loc)

Var(name="beta_loc")

print(beta_scale)

Var(name="beta_scale")


Now, let us create the node for the regression coefficients.

To do so, we need to define its initial value and its node distribution using the Dist class. This class wraps distribution classes with the TensorFlow Probability (TFP) API to connect them to our node classes. Here, the node distribution is initialized with three arguments: the TFP distribution object (tfd.Normal), and the two hyperparameter nodes representing the parameters of the distribution. TFP uses the names loc for the mean and scale for the standard deviation, so we have to use the same names here. This is a general feature of Dist, you can always use the parameter names from TFP to refer to the parameters of your distribution.

beta_dist = lsl.Dist(tfd.Normal, loc=beta_loc, scale=beta_scale)


With this distribution object, we can now create the node for our regression coefficient with the Param() class:

beta = lsl.Param(value=np.array([0.0, 0.0]), distribution=beta_dist,name="beta")


#### The standard deviation#

The second branch of the tree contains the residual standard deviation. We build it in a similar way, but this time, using the weakly informative prior $$\sigma^2 \sim \text{InverseGamme}(0.01, 0.01)$$ on the squared standard deviation, i.e. the variance. Again, we use the parameter names based on TFP.

a = lsl.Var(0.01, name="a")
b = lsl.Var(0.01, name="b")

sigma_sq_dist = lsl.Dist(tfd.InverseGamma, concentration=a, scale=b)
sigma_sq = lsl.Param(value=10.0, distribution=sigma_sq_dist, name="sigma_sq")
sigma = lsl.Var(lsl.Calc(jnp.sqrt, sigma_sq), name="sigma").update()

No GPU/TPU found, falling back to CPU. (Set TF_CPP_MIN_LOG_LEVEL=0 and rerun for more info.)


#### Design matrix, fitted values, and response#

All nodes we have seen so far are strong nodes. Before we can create a weak node that computes the predictions $$\hat{\boldsymbol{y}} = \mathbf{X}\boldsymbol{\beta}$$, we need to set up one more strong node for the design matrix. This is done quickly with a Obs() node:

X = lsl.Obs(X_mat, name="X")


To compute the matrix-vector product $$\hat{\boldsymbol{y}} = \mathbf{X}\boldsymbol{\beta}$$, we make our first use of the Calc class. We can use this class to include computations based on our nodes. It always takes a function as its first argument, and the nodes to be used as function inputs as the following arguments. In this case, we can create the calculator like this:

yhat_fn = lambda x, beta: jnp.dot(x, beta) # stick to JAX numpy functions in calculators
calc = lsl.Calc(yhat_fn, x=X, beta=beta)


With this calculator in place, we can create a corresponding node that represents the fitted values. For this, the Var class is the right choice. As the node’s value, we use the calc object we just created.

y_hat = lsl.Var(calc, name="y_hat")


Finally, we can connect the branches of the tree in a response node. The value of the node is the simulated response vector - our observed response values. And since we assumed the model $$y_i \sim \mathcal{N}(\beta_0 + \beta_1 x_i, \;\sigma^2)$$, we also need to specify the response’s distribution. For that, we use y_hat to represent the mean (/location) and sigma to represent the standard deviation (/scale).

y_dist = lsl.Dist(tfd.Normal, loc=y_hat, scale=sigma)
y = lsl.Var(y_vec, distribution=y_dist, name="y")


#### Bringing the model together#

Now, to construct a full-fledged Liesel model from our individual node objects, we can use the GraphBuilder class. Here, we will only add the response node.

gb = lsl.GraphBuilder().add(y)

liesel.model.model - INFO - Converted dtype of Data(name="y_value").value
liesel.model.model - INFO - Converted dtype of Data(name="beta_value").value
liesel.model.model - INFO - Converted dtype of Data(name="X_value").value

gb

GraphBuilder(0 nodes, 1 vars)


Since all other nodes are directly or indirectly connected to this node, the GraphBuilder will add those nodes automatically when it builds the model. Let us do that now with a call to build_model(). The model that is returned by the builder provides a couple of convenience function, for example, to evaluate the model log-probability, or to update the nodes in a topological order.

model = gb.build_model()
model

Model(26 nodes, 10 vars)


The plot_vars() function visualizes the graph of a model. Strong nodes are shown in blue, weak nodes in red. Nodes with a probability distribution are highlighted with a star. In the figure below, we can see the tree-like structure of the graph and identify the two branches for the mean and the standard deviation of the response. By the way, if the layout of the graph looks messy for you, please make sure you have the pygraphviz package installed.

lsl.plot_vars(model)


### Node and model log-probabilities#

The log-probability of the model, which can be interpreted as the (unnormalized) log-posterior in a Bayesian context, can be accessed with the log_prob property.

model.log_prob

Array(-1179.6559, dtype=float32)


The individual nodes also have a log_prob property. In fact, because of the conditional independence assumption of the model, the log-probability of the model is given by the sum of the log-probabilities of the nodes with probability distributions. We take the sum for the .log_prob attributes of beta and y because, per default, the attributes return the individual log-probability contributions of each element in the values of the nodes. So for beta we would get two log-probability values, and for y we would get 500.

beta.log_prob.sum() + sigma_sq.log_prob + y.log_prob.sum()

Array(-1179.6559, dtype=float32)


Nodes without a probability distribution return a log-probability of zero.

beta_loc.log_prob

0.0


The log-probability of a node depends on its value and its inputs. Thus, if we change the variance of the response from 10 to 1, the log-probability of the corresponding node, the log-probability of the response node, and the log-probability of the model change as well. Note that, since the actual input to the response distribution is the standard deviation $$\sigma$$, we have to update its value after changing the value of $$\sigma^2$$.

print(f"Old value of sigma_sq: {sigma_sq.value}")

Old value of sigma_sq: 10.0

print(f"Old log-prob of sigma_sq: {sigma_sq.log_prob}")

Old log-prob of sigma_sq: -6.972140312194824

print(f"Old log-prob of y: {y.log_prob.sum()}\n")

Old log-prob of y: -1161.635498046875

sigma_sq.value = 1.0
sigma.update()

Var(name="sigma")

print(f"New value of sigma_sq: {sigma_sq.value}")

New value of sigma_sq: 1.0

print(f"New log-prob of sigma_sq: {sigma_sq.log_prob}")

New log-prob of sigma_sq: -4.655529975891113

print(f"New log-prob of y: {y.log_prob.sum()}\n")

New log-prob of y: -1724.6702880859375

print(f"New model log-prob: {model.log_prob}")

New model log-prob: -1740.3740234375


For most inference algorithms, we need the gradient of the model log-probability with respect to the parameters. Liesel uses the JAX library for numerical computing and machine learning to compute gradients using automatic differentiation.

## MCMC inference with Goose#

This section illustrates the key features of Liesel’s MCMC framework Goose. To use Goose, the user needs to select one or more sampling algorithms, called (transition) kernels, for the model parameters. Goose comes with a number of standard kernels such as Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMCKernel) or the No U-Turn Sampler (NUTSKernel). Multiple kernels can be combined in one sampling scheme and assigned to different parameters, and the user can implement their own problem-specific kernels, as long as they are compatible with the Kernel protocol. In any case, the user is responsible for constructing a mathematically valid algorithm.

We start with a very simple sampling scheme, keeping $$\sigma$$ fixed at the true value and using a NUTS sampler for $$\boldsymbol{\beta}$$. The kernels are added to a Engine, which coordinates the sampling, including the kernel tuning during the warmup, and the MCMC bookkeeping. The engine can be configured step by step with a EngineBuilder. We need to inform the builder about the model, the initial values, the kernels, and the sampling duration. Finally, we can call the EngBuilder.build() method, which returns a fully configured engine.

sigma_sq.value = true_sigma**2

builder = gs.EngineBuilder(seed=1337, num_chains=4)

builder.set_model(lsl.GooseModel(model))
builder.set_initial_values(model.state)

builder.set_duration(warmup_duration=1000, posterior_duration=1000)

engine = builder.build()

liesel.goose.builder - WARNING - No jitter functions provided. The initial values won't be jittered
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Initializing kernels...
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Done


Now we can run the MCMC algorithm for the specified duration by calling the sample_all_epochs() method on the engine. In a first step, the model and the sampling algorithm are compiled, so don’t worry if you don’t see an output right away. The subsequent samples will be generated much faster. Finally, we can extract the results and print a summary table.

engine.sample_all_epochs()

liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: FAST_ADAPTATION, 75 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 3, 3, 2, 3 / 75 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 25 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 2, 1, 2, 2 / 25 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 50 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 3, 1, 1, 1 / 50 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 100 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 2, 2, 1, 1 / 100 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 200 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 3, 2, 2, 5 / 200 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 500 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 3, 2, 5, 3 / 500 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: FAST_ADAPTATION, 50 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 4, 2, 3, 2 / 50 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished warmup
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: POSTERIOR, 1000 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch

results = engine.get_results()
gs.Summary.from_result(results)


Parameter summary:

kernel mean sd q_0.05 q_0.5 q_0.95 sample_size ess_bulk ess_tail rhat
parameter index
beta (0,) kernel_00 0.985 0.088 0.835 0.984 1.129 4000 1009.406 1079.676 1.001
(1,) kernel_00 1.907 0.154 1.651 1.907 2.168 4000 965.726 1025.240 1.002

Error summary:

count relative
kernel error_code error_msg phase
kernel_00 1 divergent transition warmup 66 0.016
posterior 0 0.000

If we need more samples, we can append another epoch to the engine and sample it by calling either the sample_next_epoch() or the sample_all_epochs() method. The epochs are described by EpochConfig objects.

engine.append_epoch(
gs.EpochConfig(gs.EpochType.POSTERIOR, duration=1000, thinning=1, optional=None)
)

engine.sample_next_epoch()

liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished warmup
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: POSTERIOR, 1000 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch


No compilation is required at this point, so this is pretty fast.

### Using a Gibbs kernel#

So far, we have not sampled our variance parameter sigma_sq; we simply fixed it to the true value of one. Now we extend our model with a Gibbs sampler for sigma_sq. Using a Gibbs kernel is a bit more complicated, because Goose doesn’t automatically derive the full conditional from the model graph. Hence, the user needs to provide a function to sample from the full conditional. The function needs to accept a PRNG state and a model state as arguments, and it needs to return a dictionary with the node name as the key and the new node value as the value. We could also update multiple parameters with one Gibbs kernel if we returned a dictionary of length two or more.

To retrieve the values of our nodes from the model_state, we need to add the suffix _value behind the nodes’ names. Likewise, the node name in returned dictionary needs to have the added _value suffix.

def draw_sigma_sq(prng_key, model_state):
a_prior = model_state["a_value"].value
b_prior = model_state["b_value"].value
n = len(model_state["y_value"].value)

resid = model_state["y_value"].value - model_state["y_hat_value"].value

a_gibbs = a_prior + n / 2
b_gibbs = b_prior + jnp.sum(resid**2) / 2
draw = b_gibbs / jax.random.gamma(prng_key, a_gibbs)
return {"sigma_sq_value": draw}


We build the engine in a similar way as before, but this time adding the Gibbs kernel as well.

builder = gs.EngineBuilder(seed=1338, num_chains=4)

builder.set_model(lsl.GooseModel(model))
builder.set_initial_values(model.state)

builder.set_duration(warmup_duration=1000, posterior_duration=1000)

engine = builder.build()

liesel.goose.builder - WARNING - No jitter functions provided. The initial values won't be jittered
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Initializing kernels...
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Done

engine.sample_all_epochs()

liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: FAST_ADAPTATION, 75 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 4, 3, 4, 2 / 75 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 25 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 2, 3, 1, 1 / 25 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 50 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 1, 1, 2, 1 / 50 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 100 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 3, 4, 2, 1 / 100 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 200 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 1, 1, 1, 2 / 200 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: SLOW_ADAPTATION, 500 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 1, 1, 4, 2 / 500 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: FAST_ADAPTATION, 50 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - WARNING - Errors per chain for kernel_00: 3, 2, 2, 2 / 50 transitions
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished warmup
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Starting epoch: POSTERIOR, 1000 transitions, 25 jitted together
liesel.goose.engine - INFO - Finished epoch


Goose provides a couple of convenient numerical and graphical summary tools. The Summary class computes several summary statistics that can be either accessed programmatically or displayed as a summary table.

results = engine.get_results()
gs.Summary(results)


Parameter summary:

kernel mean sd q_0.05 q_0.5 q_0.95 sample_size ess_bulk ess_tail rhat
parameter index
beta (0,) kernel_00 0.988 0.091 0.836 0.986 1.136 4000 1062.803 1241.739 1.001
(1,) kernel_00 1.903 0.159 1.644 1.905 2.165 4000 1016.457 1115.783 1.001
sigma_sq () kernel_01 1.044 0.066 0.939 1.042 1.155 4000 3639.404 3610.256 1.000

Error summary:

count relative
kernel error_code error_msg phase
kernel_00 1 divergent transition warmup 57 0.014
posterior 0 0.000

We can plot the trace plots of the chains with plot_trace().

g = gs.plot_trace(results)

/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1057: FutureWarning: The default of observed=False is deprecated and will be changed to True in a future version of pandas. Pass observed=False to retain current behavior or observed=True to adopt the future default and silence this warning.
grouped_data = data.groupby(
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1057: FutureWarning: The default of observed=False is deprecated and will be changed to True in a future version of pandas. Pass observed=False to retain current behavior or observed=True to adopt the future default and silence this warning.
grouped_data = data.groupby(
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1057: FutureWarning: The default of observed=False is deprecated and will be changed to True in a future version of pandas. Pass observed=False to retain current behavior or observed=True to adopt the future default and silence this warning.
grouped_data = data.groupby(


We could also take a look at a kernel density estimator with plot_density() and the estimated autocorrelation with plot_cor(). Alternatively, we can output all three diagnostic plots together with plot_param(). The following plot shows the parameter $$\beta_0$$.

gs.plot_param(results, param="beta", param_index=0)

/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1057: FutureWarning: The default of observed=False is deprecated and will be changed to True in a future version of pandas. Pass observed=False to retain current behavior or observed=True to adopt the future default and silence this warning.
grouped_data = data.groupby(
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1057: FutureWarning: The default of observed=False is deprecated and will be changed to True in a future version of pandas. Pass observed=False to retain current behavior or observed=True to adopt the future default and silence this warning.
grouped_data = data.groupby(
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1498: FutureWarning: is_categorical_dtype is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use isinstance(dtype, CategoricalDtype) instead
if pd.api.types.is_categorical_dtype(vector):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):
/opt/hostedtoolcache/Python/3.10.13/x64/lib/python3.10/site-packages/seaborn/_oldcore.py:1119: FutureWarning: use_inf_as_na option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Convert inf values to NaN before operating instead.
with pd.option_context('mode.use_inf_as_na', True):


Here, we end this first tutorial. We have learned about a lot of different classes and we have seen how we can flexibly use different Kernels for drawing MCMC samples - that is quite a bit for the start. Now, have fun modelling with Liesel!